Sunday, March 15, 2020

buy custom Principles of Finance essay

buy custom Principles of Finance essay Principles of finance can be defined as managerial finance and the environment within which the decision-maker functions. It focuses on what these managers, investors, and governments agencies do with information in financial records and other managerial finance records. Statement of work Though Guillermos furniture store is undergoing serious financial difficulties, he can turn around his fortune by understanding some basic financial concepts. He can witness profit once again in his business, be able to operate more effectively, and even make wiser decisions for future business ventures. Financial concepts that Guillermo will need to address include power of cash flow, risk vs. reward, time value, debt vs. equity financing, and opportunity cost. Equity versus debt financing It is borrowing money to finance your business. Debt financing is where you borrow repayable capital, e.g., a bank loan, whereby equity financing is soliciting funds from an investor. In Guillermos scenario, he has the option of choosing either. He can ecide to shift to primary distribution and then inscribe his patented coating on the Rivals furniture. This is equity financing, since the competitor from abroad will basically finance all production and his mainstream will be distribution. He can, on the other hand, choose to acquire the expensive hi-tech production mechanisms used in foreign fields and eventually cut down production costs. This will most probably demand debt financing. Power of Cash Flow Power of cash flow is experienced when the amount of revenue for the company (sales of Guillermos furniture) is more than the expenditure (labor, overheads, miscellaneous). It is evident that Guillermos business was hard hit by the increase in labor cost. This in effect changed the cash flow from positive to negative. Guillermos can address this issue by reducing labor costs, e.g., through use of robots and hi-tech technology. Opportunity Cost This is the foregone cost of another one. It is associated with taking one cost over another. Guillermo had an option of either being merged/swallowed by annother company, and thus escaping most of overheads, or acquiring another company and sharing cost. He has foregone the two and decided to strengthen his independent store by doing more research and using technology to enhance his services. Risk versus Reward Having the courage to make a risky venture is the secret to make gains in business. Guillermo is in the identical scenario where he has to decide which business he will venture in. He can decide to acquire the expensive hi-tech mechanisms (robots and laser machines), merge or even exploit his patents to make unique products that stand out from those of competitors. All these are risky ventures that need courage of a veteran businessperson in which Guillermo fits the bill. Conclusion Finance concepts are the researched financial aspects in the business world that manage the way it runs. There are issues that business managers need to address in order to succeed in terms of quantitative finance and risk management. By working on these concepts, Guillermo Navallez will put his store back to the furnitures market. Buy custom Principles of Finance essay

Friday, February 28, 2020

Organizational Stakeholders Affected by Ethical or Unethical Behavior Essay

Organizational Stakeholders Affected by Ethical or Unethical Behavior at Boeing - Essay Example The unethical behaviors manifested by Condit and Stonecipher were not exemplary because they failed to adhere to the prevailing policies that the company initiated in order to provide a good venue for business, as specified in the case. As a result, this created a significant impact, primarily on the level of trust that the investors will have to guarantee for Boeing. For example, the anomalous contract between Sears and Druyun forced Condit to resign, which required the image of Boeing for further cleaning up, as primarily depicted on the ideal move of Stonecipher, Condit’s replacement. This resulted to cancellation of contracts with potential investors for around billions of dollars. On the other hand, Stonecipher violated the company’s code of conduct, which he himself mandated for the employees. He had a consensual relationship with a female employee, which is a behavior that would strongly stand against the prevailing company policy. Therefore, the image of Boeing has become so poor, affecting not only the potential investors, but also directly the employees within the organization. 2. What organizational approach to social responsibility did Boeing appear to use under the leadership of Condit and Stonecipher? How do you think the approach changed under McNerney’s leadership?... However, under his leadership, even though he attempted to clean up the mess of the previous administration, he failed to provide exemplary actions on how exactly he was forceful in implementing the company’s prevailing policies he mandated himself. Changing the culture of the company, with openness and accountability primarily to ward off illegal financial reporting is one of the ultimate concerns of McNerney’s administration. Added to this is to implement teamwork and improve morals. Now this may sound like McNerney is heading to include placing value, treating employees well and fairly, and sourcing of ethical business partners. By doing all of these, what might turn out as mess in the previous administration will remarkably generate a substantial improvement under McNerney’s administration as the bottom line of his action is to promote an organization that will operate in a socially responsible way. 3. Are the actions McNerney is proposing likely to improve e thics at Boeing? If yes, explain why. If now, tell what actions McNerney could take that would be effective. Let us recall the point of McNerney prior to his entry at Boeing. This person is not afraid to take the plunge into change, giving a higher possibility that he would guarantee total restoration of the prevailing morals in the company. In the first place, one significant manifestation that he could be capable of initiating change was his ability to look at the culture first at Boeing. He has in mind to change the prevailing culture to develop transparency. This alone could help us decide whether McNerney is proposing for the company is most likely to improve ethics at Boeing. At the positive side, yes it will definitely pave a way moving forward to a positive

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Racial Profiling Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Racial Profiling - Assignment Example This study also reveals the role of ethical and moral concepts in suitable decision-making hence showing the importance of making suitable judgment on individual appearances in the society. Introduction A number of modern techniques have been formulated to enhance security within society. Among these methods is racial profiling. This method utilizes various stereotypes in formulating security measures that are utilized in various law enforcing agencies in the country. This method has received acceptance among many developed societies despite raising a number of moral and ethical issues within society. In this study, focus is placed on the interaction between morals, ethics, and law within society. Question one Racial profiling is a matter of both discretion and ethics. First, racial profiling is a product of freedom among individuals. This freedom enables individuals to undertake any activity they deem right. For instance, in some European countries Chinese tenants are ejected from a partments since the proprietors fear that they may infect other individuals with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (Tator & Henry, 2006).This freedom of choice may be misused thus resulting to reintroduction of crimes such as racism in society. Secondly, racial profiling is an ethical issue since it employs various ethical concepts during its decision making stage. For instance, consequential theories in ethics suggest that an action is moral if the number of benefits it generates exceeds the number of shortcomings. Therefore, application of racial profiling techniques in averting crimes such as terrorism is moral (Zack, 2011). Question two According to Boss (2008), racial profiling has a number of ethical and moral dimensions. These dimensions are negative and positive dimensions. Outcomes from racial profiling help to determine whether its dimensions are positive or negative. These dimensions are evaluated using normative, consequential, and deontological and virtue ethics. Ac cording to normative ethics, an action is right or wrong based on the nature of the characters involved. For illustration, a bartender may refuse to sell alcohol to an individual of aboriginal origin based on their rude behavior when drunk. This explains the positive dimension of racial profiling. Muffler (2006) contends that racial profiling has a positive or negative dimension based on the resultant ratio of wrong and rights. Deontological ethics also argue that various choices made when executing racial profiling determine the dimensions of the technique. For instance, undertaking racial profiling to satisfy personal greed is forbidden in deontological ethics since it may result to increased crimes of hate within any society. Question three Harris (2003) contends that individuals in society place judgment on each other based on a number of reasons. These reasons include societal stereotypes, past experiences, personal behavior, and individual appearances. Societal concepts are a major determinant of people’s judgment within any setting. Among these concepts, societal stereotypes influence individual choices when passing judgments. For instance, in some societies individuals of color are viewed as inferior to the Europeans. This may influence the choices made during judgment hence creating a widespread view that individuals with a colored skin are inferior (Tator& Henry, 2006).Personal

Friday, January 31, 2020

Hamlet and death Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Hamlet and death - Essay Example Disputes among political power houses and rival gangs are also highlighted by the speaker. This is a community just like any other and there were interest from rival groups as to who were superior so as to gain control of the community. Cultural Revolution and resumption of Chinese and Japanese relation is heavily highlighted in the red sorghum novel. This was an attempt by their leaders to get the two groups together and leave harmoniously. The speaker uses a style written in first person characterized by briefness without any chronological order of events. The story was aimed at bringing people together after long fought battles which many people lost their lives and it came up with strategy of getting food, water, life among other basic things harmoniously (Moet all 90). Is a paly of Italian culture which is based on real life occurrence between an Italian rail road worker and anarchist Giuseppe pinelli who died after he was thrown at a police station in Milan police station after he had been accused of bombing a bank but he was later cleared of any wrong doing Unlike the red sorghum novel which is based on true story, this is fictional work created by the author. It starts with a police inspector interrogating a suspect in the first floor who was smarter and the officer could not find anything from him. A judge was brought and meeting scheduled in the fourth floor of the same building, with a journalist probing the incident in attendance. The play ends where the journalist leaves the room and maniac later escapes (Fo et al 2002 356). The two instances were among the leading drama in the world. Though the later were fictional occurrences, it was well done by the author and the play was later performed in various countries across the world. The former is work based on true story and it also attracts success wherever the novel was

Thursday, January 23, 2020

The History of Greek Theater :: Art

The History of Greek Theater Theater and drama in Ancient Greece took form in about 5th century BCE, with the Sopocles, the great writer of tragedy. In his plays and those of the same genre, heroes and the ideals of life were depicted and glorified. It was believed that man should live for honor and fame, his action was courageous and glorious and his life would climax in a great and noble death. Originally, the hero’s recognition was created by selfish behaviors and little thought of service to others. As the Greeks grew toward city-states and colonization, it became the destiny and ambition of the hero to gain honor by serving his city. The second major characteristic of the early Greek world was the supernatural. The two worlds were not separate, as the gods lived in the same world as the men, and they interfered in the men’s lives as they chose to. It was the gods who sent suffering and evil to men. In the plays of Sophocles, the gods brought about the hero’s downfall because of a tragic flaw in the character of the hero. In Greek tragedy, suffering brought knowledge of worldly matters and of the individual. Aristotle attempted to explain how an audience could observe tragic events and still have a pleasurable experience. Aristotle, by searching the works of writers of Greek tragedy, Aeschulus, Euripides and Sophocles (whose Oedipus Rex he considered the finest of all Greek tragedies), arrived at his definition of tragedy. This explanation has a profound influence for more than twenty centuries on those writing tragedies, most significantly Shakespeare. Aristotle’s analysis of tragedy began with a description of the effect such a work had on the audience as a â€Å"catharsis† or purging of the emotions. He decided that catharsis was the purging of two specific emotions, pity and fear. The hero has made a mistake due to ignorance, not because of wickedness or corruption. Aristotle used the word â€Å"hamartia†, which is the â€Å"tragic flaw† or offense committed in ignorance. For example, Oedipus is ignorant of his true parentage when he commits his fatal deed. Oedipus Rex is one of the stories in a three-part myth called the Thebian cycle. The structure of most all Greek tragedies is similar to Oedipus Rex. Such plays are divided in to five parts, the prologue or introduction, the â€Å"prados† or entrance of the chorus, four episode or acts separates from one another by â€Å"stasimons† or choral odes, and â€Å"exodos†, the action after the last stasimon.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Erp Project Oracle vs Asap

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Project Students name: Registration number: Course: Date: Table of Contents ABSTRACT3 INTRODUCTION5 VENDOR OVERVIEW8 INTRODUCTION8 SAP8 ORACLE9 BUSINESS FUNCTIONS13 Production14 Sales14 Support services15 External services15 BUSINESS FUNCTIONS SUPPORTED BY ORACLE AND SAP16 TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM FROM SAP AND ORACLE19 COST COMPARISON BETWEEN SAP AND ORACLE20 EASE OF USE22 ERP MODULES23 Oracle’s Financial Management Analytics23 Oracle database 11g enterprise edition24 VENDOR SELECTION27 ERP DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE28 SCOPE AND COMMITMENT STAGE28 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN29 ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT STAGE30IMPLEMENTATION STAGE30 OPERATIONAL STAGE30 Bibliography31 ABSTRACT Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a system that integrates all the internal and external functional units of an organization, the functional units may be manufacturing, finance, storage, management, transport, customer satisfaction etc. in order to integrate all the organizationâ₠¬â„¢s functional unit into a flawless and harmonious system, computer software have been developed by different vendors, these software may be custom made for a particular organization or they may be general for use by any organization (Jerferson, 2010).ERP systems are put in place to improve on the efficiency of information management of the organization, all the data from the different units of the organization are managed by the software and is usually stored in a central location called a server, the server may be physically located in the organization or it may be a virtual one on the internet, the virtual serve uses a technology called cloud computing.The ERP system normally contains modules that are specialized sub-systems that are task-oriented, these modules include human resource, production planning, financial planning, quality management, materials management, sales and distribution, maintenance, controlling, asset management, project management and industry solutions. T he ERP software are developed and sold by vendors under different levels, the highest level is the large Enterprise ERP tier I which include vendors such as SAP, Oracle and Microsoft, this level is for larger enterprises with complex communication protocols between so many functional units.The second level is the midmarket ERP tier II which include vendors such as Infor, QAD, Lawson, sage and IFS, these ERP software are suitable for medium companies that have average complexity in terms of information management. The last level is the small business ERP tier III, vendors of these ERP systems include Exact Globe, Syspro, NetSuite and Visibility, ERP software in this are suitable for small businesses with simple information management systems (Jerferson, 2010).In this project, a detailed analysis of a hypothetical university’s information management system is made, and then an ERP software will be selected from one of the two vendors, SAP or Oracle. The selection will be based on the steps of the ERP development life cycle, the cycle will involve all the standard phases of an ERP development life cycle. The major activities of the university include provision of education, research activities and community service. The functional units of the university include the academics affairs, inance department, staff administration, medical services, marketing and public relations, central store, catering, students welfare and quality assurance. The project will analyze the software modules that are provided by Oracle and SAP, a detailed investigation on the suitability of the two will also be made, and then one of them will be selected for use as the university’s ERP system. This selection will be based on facts and will be as systematic as the ERP development cycle.INTRODUCTION There are several ERP vendors in the global market, each is fighting to be the dominant brand, and as a result, stiff competition between the vendors is taking place. Each vendor i s engineering better ERP software to attract the customer’s attention and fulfill their needs, some of the vendors are SAP, Oracle, Microsoft, Lawson, sage and IFS. In this project, the two most dominant vendors in the market will be analyzed, these are SAP and Oracle.The two vendors had a total market share of 55% between the year 2005 and 2009, and they have developed a wide range of products that are tailored to suit several organizations, be it military, government or industrial (Jerferson, 2010). SAP and Oracle are both in the large enterprise tier I category and they have mainly designed products to suit this segment of the market, however, nowadays they are developing ERP software for midmarket tier II. The project will take a hypothetical university as a case study, the university offers a variety of courses and has a number of campuses distributed all over the country.As part of the management policy, the university is divided into several departments that represent the business functions of a generalized organization, the departments are:- 1. Academics affairs This department deals with the core business of the university, which is provision of education, the department organizes the timetables, assigns lecturers to the different units, manages the curriculum, manages the student’s results, ensures that all the university policies are adhered to and organizes the tests and exams. 2. Central storeIn this department, they receive anything that is supplied by the suppliers. The central store also makes requisitions for general materials such as stationery, staff uniforms, sanitary consumables etc. but they don’t make orders for special materials that are specific to a certain department only such as machinery, computers, furniture etc. 3. Finance This department deals with the management and controlling of the university’s budgets, it also deals with monitoring and management of the school fees as well as the staff salaries a nd allowances.The department relies heavily on computer software to carry out its daily activities, all data is stored in a central server. 4. Students welfare The student’s wellbeing is taken care by this department, activities such as sports, festivals, parties, concerts are organized, monitored and financed by this department. 5. Human resource The recruitment of new members of staff, promotions and disciplinary procedure for misconduct of staff are all carried out by this department. The department also carries out training programs for members of staff. . Catering This department manages the catering services at the students and staff cafeterias, the department also makes orders for all the ingredients they need for preparing the food on the menu for the different days. The sales from the cafeteria are not managed by the catering department, they are managed by the finance department. 7. Medical services The student’s and health needs are meet by this department, the staff in this department include doctors, nurses and pharmacists.They treat any sick student or staff for free, but they use software to keep their data such as medical records, inventory and lab results. 8. Public relations This department deals with uplifting the university’s image, maintaining good relations with other stakeholders and promoting the university at different levels of the socioeconomic setup. 9. Other department Other smaller departments include quality assurance office, advertising department and repairs and maintenance, transport and research institute. VENDOR OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION SAPSAP AG is a software company based in Germany that makes enterprise software, the company was founded in June 1972 and was started by former IBM engineers, the company was initially called Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung (â€Å"System Analysis and Program Development†) but the name was later changed to Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung (â€Å"System Anal ysis and Program Development†), in 2005, the name was officially changed to SAP AG, SAP AG was included in the German stock index DAX in 1995 and was included in the Dow Jones STOXX 50 in 2003 (Leakey, 2013).Currently, SAP is the world leader in the sale of business and database software with a market share of 32%. Some of the main products of SAP are:- CATEGORY| PACKAGE NAME| Business| Analytics| | Advanced Planner And Optimizer| | Business Information Warehouse| | Portal| | Enterprise Central Component| | Governance, Risk And Compliance| | Human Resource Management Systems| | Knowledge Warehouse| | Internet Transaction Server| | Catalog Content Management| | Hana| | Supply Chain Performance Management| | Training And Event Management| | Manufacturing | | Master Data Management| | Service And Asset Management|Industry| Oil And Gas| | Healthcare| | Telecommunication| | Public Sector| | Utilities| | Retail| Small and midsize enterprises| Business One| | Business ByDesign| Other | CCMS| | Sapgui| | eCATT| | Central Process Scheduling| | Solution Manager| ORACLE Oracle is an American database and business management software company that was founded in 1977, its first name was Software Development Laboratories, in 1979 the name was changed to Relational Software Incorporation, the name was changed again in 1982 to Oracle Systems Corporation and lastly it was renamed Oracle Corporation in 1995 (Wikipedia, 2013).Oracle is ranked as the world’s third largest software maker after Microsoft and IBM by revenue, however, it is ranked second in as an ERP software maker by market share after SAP. Oracle had a market share of 23% in ERP software between 2005 and 2009 while SAP had a staggering 32% market share. Some of Oracle’s products are listed below CATEGORY| PACKAGE NAME| Applications| Oracle E-Business Suite| | Enterprise performance management| | Financial management| | Oracle fusion applications| | Oracle CRM on demand| | Customer relation manage ment| Hyperion| | JD Edwards world| | JD Edwards enterprise one| | Human capital management| | Master data management| | Primavera| | Web commerce| | Sustainability| | Procurement| | Project management| | Siebel| | Supply chain management| Database| Oracle database 11g enterprise edition| | Oracle database 11g standard edition| | Oracle database 11g standard edition one| | Active data guard| | Advanced security| | Airline data model| | Database security| | Express edition| | Label security| | MySQL| | OLAP| | Oracle database appliance| | Database vault| NoSQL database| | Secure backup| | Secure enterprise search| Engineered systems| Oracle big data appliance| | Oracle database appliance| | Oracle exadata database machine| | Oracle exalogic elastic cloud| | SPARC superCluster T4-4| | Sun ZFS storage appliance| Enterprise management| Application management| | Application performance management| | Application quality management| | Cloud management| | Database management| | Hardware man agement| | Lifecycle management| | Middleware management| | Oracle enterprise manager 12c| Java| javaFX| | Oracle JDeveloper| Java platform Micro edition| | Java platform standard edition| | Oracle java SE suite| | Netbeans IDE| | Oracle java SE support| Middleware| Application grid| | Application server| | Collaboration| | Portal| | Linux| | Developer tools| | Weblogic| | Webcenter| | SOA| | Identity management| Others| Solaris| | Servers (hardware)| | Integrated management| | Sun ray clients| | Virtual desktop infrastructure| From the list, it can be seen that Oracle makes more products than SAP, this may explain why their revenue is higher. BUSINESS FUNCTIONSBusiness functions are the routine tasks performed in order to achieve the goal of an organization. The figure below shows the business functions (LLC, 2002). These functions are similar for almost all types of organization, but in some organization some functions are totally omitted based on the products or services offered. The figure below shows the most common business functions of any organization. A brief description of the business functions is given below Production Research and development: in this level, the organization develops new products and new designs for existing products.Tests, experiments and survey are the characteristic activities of this phase, data collected from tests and experiments is stored, managed and utilized by the organization’s decision makers Production and quality: this is a major function and usually represents the biggest part of the organization in terms of human resource, at this level, the production is managed, scheduled and planned. Effective machine and staff utilization is a very important aspect in this function, the quality and production rates are controlled based on the data received from the sales and design team.Distribution and Logistics: this function deals with the supply chain, it manages the raw materials and the final products. The activiti es that fall under this function include the coordination of storage of raw and finished products, management of transport and staff who directly deal with the supply chain. Sales Sales: under this function, the relationship between the organization and its customer comes in, the sales team presents the products to the customers in a convenient and persuasive manner, the team also makes tenders, proposals, invoices etc. o the customers. The team also gives feedback to the research, development and marketing teams on the status of customer satisfaction. Marketing: the marketing department deals with promoting the products of the organization, marketing will involve managing the packaging, advertising, forecasting, budgeting, pricing and planning. Carrying out market research and survey is also a key role played under this function Support services Finance: this is a key function in any organization, even for non-profitable organizations.Management of funds and budgeting are the key a ctivities in this function, the finance department records the incomes and expenditures of the organization and carries out future planning in terms of increasing the income and reducing the expenditure. Computing: the use of computers has become almost mandatory for any business, therefore, having computing support services is very important. In this category, the organization’s database, network and software are effectively managed.Human resource: it deals with recruitment of new members of staff, promotion of staff, formulation of contracts and job descriptions for the staff, training of the staff and carrying out disciplinary tasks concerning the staff. Materials: under this category, the requirements of the organization are identified and then the potential suppliers are contacted, the prices are negotiated and the purchase orders are prepared. The staffs working in this area have to closely work with the production team as well as other teams in order to ensure that all teams in the organization have the necessary materials.External services Chartered accountants: the accountants carry out audits to validate the company’s accounts, they also give advice on matters relating to tax and other issues related to the finances of the organization. Management consultants: the consultants carry out surveys on the organization’s policies, procedures, methods, governance and administration. Then they use the data from the surveys to recommend changes to the areas that have any flaws or require improvements.Recruitment agency: they carry out job interviews for recruitment purposes, they look for the necessary skills required by the organization and recommend to the human resource department a list of candidates who can best fit in the job. Advertising: in most organizations, advertising is done by the marketing team, but in large organization, a separate external body is charged with advertising the organization’s products and services. T he advertisers will propose to the management the best approach to get an edge over the competitors.Market research: this can also be done by the marketing department or by an external agency, surveys, data analysis, drawing conclusions from the analysis and formulating recommendations are the main tasks in market research. Public relations: this has recently become a very important business function for almost all organization, the public relations department uplifts and maintains the image of the organization, they answer to any inquiries made, carry out exhibitions, attend and organize conferences and also prepare press releases, brochures and newsletters.BUSINESS FUNCTIONS SUPPORTED BY ORACLE AND SAP From the list of business functions and the list of packages of the two vendors, it is easy to see that the two vendors have packages for almost all the business functions, packages such as procurement, Human capital, JD Edwards world, Master data management, Database security, Data base management etc. from oracle cover almost all the business functions. SAP also has packages that support business functions these packages included Supply Chain Performance Management, Human Resource Management Systems, Manufacturing, Business One, Central Process Scheduling etc. the table below compares the two vendors in their ability to support business functions, BUSINESS FUNCTION SUPPORTED| SAP| ORACLE|Research and development| * Master Data Management * Central Process Scheduling * Analytics * Solution Manager| * Project management * Master data management, Advanced security * Active data guard * Application management * Database management * Collaboration * Identity management| Production and quality| * CCMS * Business One * Utilities * Manufacturing * Advanced Planner And Optimizer| * Integrated management * Hardware management * Lifecycle management * Application performance management * Oracle exalogic elastic cloud * Database security * Siebel| Distribution and Logist ics| * Central Process Scheduling * Service And Asset Management * Supply Chain Performance * Management * Catalog Content Management| * Central Process Scheduling * Service And Asset Management * Supply Chain Performance * Management * Catalog Content Management| Sales| * Business ByDesign * Retail * Master Data Management * Portal * Internet Transaction Server| * Business ByDesign * Retail * Master Data Management * Portal * Internet Transaction Server| Marketing| * Training And Event Management * Analytics| * Application quality management * Project management * Enterprise performance management| Finance| * Enterprise Central Component * Internet Transaction Server * Master Data Management * Service And Asset Management * Business One * Business ByDesign| * JD Edwards world * Financial management * Oracle E-Business Suite * Web commerce * MySQL * Oracle database appliance * Database vault * Database management| Human resource| * Human Resource Management Systems * Training And Ev ent Management| * Human capital management| TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM FROM SAP AND ORACLE Technology platform refers to the ability to create or edit a software on an existing or future system, different ERP vendors have platforms that support their range of products and even their rivals products, this helps in allowing the customer to purchase a mixture of products from the same vendor or from two or more vendors. The table below shows the technology platforms of the two vendors SAP| Oracle| Sapgui * NetWeaver * Enterprise Workspaces * Cloud * SAP StreamWork * Mobility * Sybase Unwired Platform * Sybase Afaria * Project Gateway * Duet Enterprise * In-Memory Computing | * Virtual desktop infrastructure * Developer tools * Linux * Portal * Application grid * Oracle java SE support * Netbeans IDE * Java platform standard edition * Java platform Micro edition * Oracle JDeveloper * javaFX * Application server * Collaboration| The table below shows the technology platform of the two In terms of the operating systems they support and other platforms. SAP| ORACLE| * Windows * Open Source * Web Based * Linux| WindowsLinuxUnix| COST COMPARISON BETWEEN SAP AND ORACLEThe total cost of implementing an ERP project is the total amount paid to put the system in place, it involve the purchase of the system, the cost of implementing the changes required for the system to work and the salaries and wages of the personnel who work in the system. In term of the initial cost, SAP has a higher price than Oracle, SAP has maintained their high billing rates because their focus is mainly on larger enterprises, so the price seems unreasonable for small and medium enterprises, and therefore, most customer rank SAP as the most expensive (Jerferson, 2010). However, SAP has the lowest average cost overrun at about 8% over budget but Oracle had the highest cost overrun at about 15%, which is almost double that of SAP.The payback period for SAP is 13 months while that of Oracle stands at 11 months (Jerferson, 2010). According to a research conducted by Panorama consulting group, the project cost for the two vendors were as depicted on the graph below It can be seen that the two normally go beyond the anticipated budget (at 53. 6% SAP, 52. 6% Oracle) suggesting that the budgeted cost for ERP projects are likely to be less than the actual budget by an average of 53. 1% (Jerferson, 2010). The tables below were extracted from Nucleus Research and they were comparing the costs of SAP and Oracle (Jerferson, 2010). EASE OF USE The ease of use of an ERP system can be compared by looking at the customer’s satisfaction after purchasing the software. 2% of SAP’s customers were satisfied while 74% of Oracle’s customer were satisfied, this indicates that Oracle’s software are easier to use than SAP’s software but the margin between the two was very close (Jerferson, 2010). ERP MODULES The two modules were selected from Oracle, and they are Oracleâ€℠¢s Financial Management Analytics This module provides the top financial management team with a good insight into the status of the financial department and the financial results, it offers a unified solution that can be deployed quickly and contains packaged dashboards and analytics tools that help give a quick insight into the status of the financial system.This module supports the financial business function, finance involves a lot of staff and workload, and the staffs carry out routine tasks that can be repeated daily, weekly, semi-annually or annually. These records are often kept in files and this poses a huge challenge when the top management needs a quick insight or review into the results. Oracle’s Financial Management Analytics automates this system and maintains the records in a database system so that they can be accessed easily. The working principle of Analytics is depicted in the figure below (Oracle, 2012). The key features of Analytics are shown in the table below FEATURE| DESCRIPTION| Executive View| Gross Profit By Region, Income By Region, Net Cash Flow| Process Management| Metrics, Trend Analysis, Overall/Entity Status|Financial Close Schedule Summary| Summary, Graphs, Milestones, Compensation| Performance Indicators| Ratios Year On Year Comparison Table, Ratio Components, Ratio Trend Analysis| Profit And Loss| Summary Income Statement, Variance Analysis, Trend Profit And Loss| Gross Profit| Variance Analysis, Gross Profit By Product, Trend Gross Profit| Balance Sheet| Consolidating Balance Sheet, Metrics, Variance Analysis, Trend Balance Sheet| Cash Flow| Cash Flow Summary, Consolidation, Variance Analysis| Current Analysis| Variance Analysis| This module supports the finance business function, this is a key function in any organization, even for non-profitable organizations.Management of funds and budgeting are the key activities in this function, the finance department records the incomes and expenditures of the organization and carries out future planning in terms of increasing the income and reducing the expenditure. Oracle database 11g enterprise edition Oracle’s database 11g enterprise edition is a database management software that is suitable for small and medium sized enterprises, this module manages all the data in the organization and enables all the business applications to benefit from the performance, reliability, security and scalability of Oracle’s database 11g enterprise edition (Wikipedia, 2013). Oracle’s database 11g enterprise edition supports all standard data types such as XML, Text, Documents, Images, Audio, Video and Location data.Access to data is via standard interfaces such as SQL, JDBC, SQLJ, ODBC . NET, OLE . NET and ODP . NET, SQL/XML and Xquery, and WebDAV. It also has some analytical tools for modeling in SQL-based systems (Wikipedia, 2013). The figure below shows the working principle of Oracle’s database 11g enterprise edition. DATA STORE PROCESS DA TA STORE USER USER PROCESS DATA STORE PROCESS DATA STORE PROCESS DATA STORE USER USER PROCESS DATA STORE PROCESS This module support several business functions, for example it supports the sales, finance, logistics, human resource management, production etc. by keeping all the relevant data in a secure and organized manner for easy access and retrieval when needed.The two selected modules can perfectly fit in the university’s operation. The university has a finance department which deals with the management and controlling of the university’s budgets, it also deals with monitoring and management of the school fees as well as the staff salaries and allowances. The department relies heavily on computer software to carry out its daily activities. Oracle’s Financial Management Analytics can be used to manage the finance department of the university. Oracle’s database 11g enterprise edition can be used to manage all the university data including the studentâ⠂¬â„¢s results, past and present exams, e-books, financial records, hospital records, timetables etc. VENDOR SELECTIONThe preferred vendor is Oracle, this is because, they are cheaper compared to SAP, the payback period is shorter than that of SAP and their customers enjoy higher rates of satisfaction. In addition, Oracle has better customer services than SAP and has a wider range of products to choose from than SAP. The domain of the organization under study did affect the choice, the university is a service provider and not a manufacturing organization, hence, some of the modules needed in the manufacturing domain may not be needed by the service providing university. The size also affected the choice of the vendor, the university can be considered as a big enterprise with branches (campuses) in different regions, thus a powerful tier I ERP system would be required to manage the university. A customized version ofERP will be the most appropriate for use in the university, this is because, the university is a unique enterprise with unique types of data management protocols, some data can be accessed by a few authorized users while other types of data should be available for every user, the levels of authority in the university are different from those in other service providing enterprises. Therefore, a great deal of customization will be required if a successful ERP system is to be implemented, this is nevertheless, an expensive option since customized ERP system cost more and take longer to implement. ERP DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE The ERP development life cycle can be summarized in a flowchart below (Motiwalla, 2010).SCOPE AND COMMITMENT STAGE This is the first stage of the cycle and it entails carrying out a feasibility study to determine whether the ERP system will actually work and if it works (Motiwalla, 2010), will it benefit the university. In addition to this, the university will develop the scope of the implementation based on the resources and time re quirements. Then the characteristics of the ERP implementation are defined to determine what features should be included in the ERP and the customization it may need, the top management’s commitment becomes very important at this stage and the short and long term vision for the new ERP system are formulated.Once this has been done, the suitable vendor is selected based on criterions such as price, reliability, payback period, customer support etc. The scope and commitments required at this stage include: * Gap analysis: an evaluation of the functions provided by the proposed ERP system is made and a comparison between the functions it can perform and the required functions is also made * Physical scope: the number of users who will use the system, the location where the system will be implemented and the sites that will be addressed are considered at this point * BPR scope: at this level, the users, department and sites affected are identified, the current processes are looke d at to see if any changes will e required to implement the system * Technical scope: evaluate the ERP system to establish if there are any modifications to be done on the system * Resource scope: the time and money allocated to the project are determined at this point * Implementation scope: the actual implementation is considered to determine which modules will be implemented and the link with the existing system ANALYSIS AND DESIGN At this stage, the ERP system is designed by the appointed teams, the user requirements are established, and the differences between the current business process and the ERP are identified and accommodated in the design (Motiwalla, 2010).Conversion of the data and the system is done at this point so that the new system is linked with the old one, a change in the management plan is also formulated to ensure successful implementation of the ERP system. Training of the staff on how to use the new system is also done at this stage. ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPM ENT STAGE The software is purchased from the vendor and the license is paid for as well, tasks identified in the gap analysis are executed at this stage, the changes in the management are also implemented to allow for the proper functionality of the new ERP, the old data is transferred to the new system and finally the security of the new system is configured. IMPLEMENTATION STAGE The purchased software is installed and implemented, the approach used in implementation can be one of the following * Phased * Pilot * Parallel * Big bangEach of these approaches has its pros and cons, but for our case, the best approach would either be phased or parallel because these two would give the staff and the students enough time to adapt to the new system. OPERATIONAL STAGE This is the final stage of the cycle, the project team officially hands over the system to the university, the university will own the system and shall be responsible for managing new releases, installation of the patches and upgrades and renewal of contracts and licenses with the vendor. Bibliography Jerferson, D. (2010). Battle of the Titans: SAP vs ORACLE. Denver: Panorama Consulting Group. Leakey, J. (2013, February 21). SAP AG. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from Wikipedia: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/SAP_AG LLC, A. P. (2002). Business Etiquette. London: ILT. Mereddy, R. (2011).SAP basis Administration Handbook. New Dehli: McGraw-Hill. Motiwalla, L. F. (2010). Enterprise System for Management. New Jersey: Pearson Education Incorporation. Oracle. (2012). Oracle Financial Management Analytics Data Sheet. California: Oracle Press. Research, N. (2010). TCO CASE STUDY: SAP VERSUS ORACLE JD EDWARDS. Alabama: Nucleus REsearch Incorporation. SAP. (2013, February 19). SAP Home Page. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from SAP: http://www. sap. com/index. epx Wang, J. (2011). Oracle Database 11g. New York: Oracle Press. Wikipedia. (2013, February 22). Oracle corporation. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from Wikipedi a: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Oracle_Corporation

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

What Is a Rubric

When kids get into high school and grades truly come to mean something, students begin to question the terms teachers have been using since they were in elementary school. Phrases like weighted scores and grading on a curve, which used to be just teacher talk, are now being called into question since those GPAs are so important 9th grade and beyond. Another question teachers get asked a lot is, What is a rubric? Teachers use them a lot in class, but students want to know how they are used, how they can help students grades, and what sorts of expectations come with them. What Is a Rubric? A rubric is simply a sheet of paper that lets students know the following things about an assignment: The overall expectations for the assignmentThe criteria, arranged in levels of quality from excellent to poor, that a student must meetThe points or grades a student can earn based on the levels Why Do Teachers Use Rubrics? Rubrics are used for a few different reasons. Rubrics allow teachers to evaluate assignments like projects, essays, and group work where there are no right or wrong answers. They also help teachers grade assignments with multiple components like a project with a presentation, an essay portion, and group work. Its easy to determine what an A is on a multiple-choice exam, but its much more difficult to determine what an A is on a project with multiple facets. A rubric helps students and the teacher know exactly where to draw the line and assign points. When Do Students Get the Rubric? Ordinarily, if a teacher is passing out the grading rubric (which he or she should do), a student will get the rubric when the assignment is handed over. Typically, a teacher will review both the assignment and the rubric, so students know the types of criteria that must be met and can ask questions if necessary. *Note: If youve received a project, but have no idea how youll be graded on it, ask your teacher if you can have a copy of the rubric so youll know the difference between grades. How Do Rubrics Work? Since rubrics offer the exact specifications for an assignment, youll always know which grade youll get on the project. Simple rubrics may merely give you the letter grade with one or two items listed next to each grade: A: Meets all assignment requirementsB: Meets most assignments requirementsC: Meets some assignment requirementsD: Meets few assignment requirementsF: Meets no assignment requirements More advanced rubrics will have multiple criteria for assessment. Below is the Use of Sources portion of a rubric from a research paper assignment, which is clearly more involved.   Researched information appropriately documentedEnough outside information to clearly represent a research processDemonstrates the use of paraphrasing, summarizing and quotingInformation supports the thesis consistentlySources on Works Cited accurately match sources cited within the text Each one of the criteria above is worth anywhere from 1 – 4 points based on this scale: 4—Clearly a knowledgeable, practiced, skilled pattern3—Evidence of a developing pattern2—Superficial, random, limited consistencies1—Unacceptable skill application So, when a teacher grades the paper and sees that the student displayed an inconsistent or superficial level of skill for criteria #1, Researched information appropriately documented, he or she would give that kid 2 points for that criteria. Then, he or she would move on to criteria #2 to determine if the student has enough outside info to represent a research process. If the student had a great number of sources, the kid would get 4 points. And so on. This portion of the rubric represents 20 points a kid could earn on the research paper; the other portions account for the remaining 80%. Rubric Examples Check out this list of rubric examples from Carnegie Mellon University for a variety of projects. Philosophy Paper  This rubric was designed for student papers in a range of philosophy courses at CMU.  Oral Exam  This rubric describes a set of standards for assessing performance on an oral exam in an upper-division history course.Engineering Design Project  This rubric describes performance standards on three aspects of a team project: Research and Design, Communication, and Team Work. Rubrics Summary Having clear expectations is great for both teachers and students. Teachers have a clear way of assessing students work and students know exactly what sorts of things are going to earn them the grade they want.